Ecology of Glyptocephalus cynoglossus
Main Ref. Nielsen, J.G., 1986
Marine - Neritic
  • supra-littoral zone
  • littoral zone
  • sublittoral zone
Marine - Oceanic
  • epipelagic
  • mesopelagic
  • epipelagic
  • abyssopelagic
  • hadopelagic
  • estuaries/lagoons/brackish seas
  • mangroves
  • marshes/swamps
  • rivers/streams
  • lakes/ponds
  • caves
  • exclusively in caves
Highighted items on the list are where Glyptocephalus cynoglossus may be found.
Remarks Inhabits soft mud bottoms in fairly deep water (Ref. 9988). Benthic (Ref. 58426). Feeds on crustaceans, polychaetes, brittle stars (Ref. 9988) and fishes (Ref. 58426). It is preyed upon by harp seals. Parasites of the species include 4 protozoans, 11 trematodes, 6 nematodes, 2 acanthocephalans and 1 copepod (Ref. 5951). See also Ref. 9000 for diet composition.


Substrate Soft Bottom
Substrate Ref.
Special habitats
Special habitats Ref.


Associations schooling; shoaling;
Associated with
Association remarks Two areas of concentrated spawning activity in the western and northern portions of the Gulf of Maine were identified, juveniles and adults appeared to be segregated by depth, but the relative position of the life stages with respect to depth varied seasonally (Ref. 94954). Low respiration rate reflects its sedentary, benthic nature (Ref. 54088). Larvae and juveniles from spawning stock north of Cape Cod travel southward being carried by water currents flowing west from Georges Bank. In the Gulf of Maine, no evidence of seasonal movement inshore or offshore. However, in Swedish waters observed to work up into shoaler water in autumn and back to deeper water in late winter and spring (Ref. 86779).


Feeding type mainly animals (troph. 2.8 and up)
Feeding type ref Nielsen, J.G., 1986
Feeding habit hunting macrofauna (predator)
Feeding habit ref Nielsen, J.G., 1986
Trophic level(s)
Original sample Unfished population Remark
Estimation method Troph s.e. Troph s.e.
From diet composition 3.17 0.15 3.11 0.20 Troph of adults from 3 studies.
Ref. Bowman, R.E., C.E. Stillwell, W.L. Michaels and M.D. Grosslein, 2000
From individual food items 3.45 0.41 Trophic level estimated from a number of food items using a randomized resampling routine.
(e.g. 346)
(e.g. cnidaria)
Entered by Luna, Susan M. on 12.17.90
Modified by Hilomen, Teresa on 02.21.14
Checked by Miranda, Lilibeth on 05.29.01
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