Ecology of Prionotus stephanophrys
 
Main Ref. Espino, M., J. Castillo, F. Fernandez, A. Menqieta, C. Wosnitza-Mendo and J. Zevallos, 1986
Distribution
Marine - Neritic
  • supra-littoral zone
  • littoral zone
  • sublittoral zone
Marine - Oceanic
  • epipelagic
  • mesopelagic
  • epipelagic
  • abyssopelagic
  • hadopelagic
Brackishwater
  • estuaries/lagoons/brackish seas
  • mangroves
  • marshes/swamps
Freshwater
  • rivers/streams
  • lakes/ponds
  • caves
  • exclusively in caves
Highighted items on the list are where Prionotus stephanophrys may be found.
Remarks Forms schools. Known to occur at 60-360 m (Ref. 9098). Inhabits sand or sandy-mud bottom (Ref. 2850).

Substrate

Substrate Soft Bottom: sand; mud;
Substrate Ref. Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983
Special habitats
Special habitats Ref.

Associations

Ref. Espino, M., J. Castillo, F. Fernandez, A. Menqieta, C. Wosnitza-Mendo and J. Zevallos, 1986
Associations schooling;
Associated with
Association remarks
Parasitism

Feeding

Feeding type mainly animals (troph. 2.8 and up)
Feeding type ref Espino, M., J. Castillo, F. Fernandez, A. Menqieta, C. Wosnitza-Mendo and J. Zevallos, 1986
Feeding habit hunting macrofauna (predator)
Feeding habit ref Espino, M., J. Castillo, F. Fernandez, A. Menqieta, C. Wosnitza-Mendo and J. Zevallos, 1986
Trophic level(s)
Original sample Unfished population Remark
Estimation method Troph s.e. Troph s.e.
From diet composition 3.50 3.38 0.46 Troph of adults from 1 study.
Ref. López-Peralta, R.H. and C.A.T. Arcila, 2002
From individual food items 3.77 0.65 Trophic level estimated from a number of food items using a randomized resampling routine.
(e.g. 346)
(e.g. cnidaria)
Entered by Rubio, Juan on 04.18.95
Modified by Pablico, Grace Tolentino on 08.13.07
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