Ecology of Gnathanodon speciosus
Main Ref. Honebrink, R., 1990
Marine - Neritic
  • supra-littoral zone
  • littoral zone
  • sublittoral zone
Marine - Oceanic
  • epipelagic
  • mesopelagic
  • epipelagic
  • abyssopelagic
  • hadopelagic
  • estuaries/lagoons/brackish seas
  • mangroves
  • marshes/swamps
  • rivers/streams
  • lakes/ponds
  • caves
  • exclusively in caves
Highighted items on the list are where Gnathanodon speciosus may be found.
Remarks Occur in inshore waters of the continental shelf (Ref. 7300); in coral reefs (Ref. 58534); and in deep lagoon and seaward reefs where they feed by rooting for crustaceans, other invertebrates in the sand and also on small fishes. Piscivore (Ref. 57615). Small juveniles live among the tentacles of jellyfish (Ref. 9710).


Substrate : rocky;
Substrate Ref.
Special habitats Coral Reefs: reef flats; lagoons;
Special habitats Ref. Dominici-Arosemena, A. and M. Wolff, 2006


Associations schooling;
Associated with Forms schools. It is noted for its behavior to closely swim around sharks and other large fish, but also following divers (Ref. 10361) to gain protection from likely predators (Ref. 9710).
Association remarks


Feeding type mainly animals (troph. 2.8 and up)
Feeding type ref Honebrink, R., 1990
Feeding habit hunting macrofauna (predator)
Feeding habit ref Honebrink, R., 1990
Trophic level(s)
Original sample Unfished population Remark
Estimation method Troph s.e. Troph s.e.
From diet composition
From individual food items 3.84 0.60 Trophic level estimated from a number of food items using a randomized resampling routine.
(e.g. 346)
(e.g. cnidaria)
Entered by Torres, Armi G. on 12.07.92
Modified by OrtaƱez, Auda Kareen on 11.26.08
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