Epinephelus undulosus (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824)
Wavy-lined grouper
photo by Randall, J.E.

 Family:  Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets), subfamily: Epinephelinae
 Max. size:  120 cm TL (male/unsexed); max.weight: 6,400.0 g
 Environment:  reef-associated; depth range 24 - 90 m
 Distribution:  Indo-West Pacific: Gulf of Oman to Kenya, including Laccadive Islands, India, Sri Lanka, and the Andaman Islands. Not reported in the Red Sea and Persian Gulf. Known also from Indonesia, Sarawak of Malaysia, New Guinea, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, and the Philippines.
 Diagnosis:  Dorsal spines (total): 11-11; Dorsal soft rays (total): 17-19; Anal spines: 3-3; Anal soft rays: 8-8. Distinguished by the following characteristics: head, body and fins purplish grey to brownish grey; head with brown to golden brown dots and wavy longitudinal lines of the same colour on the dorsal part of the body (lines faint of absent on large specimens); narrowly blackish margin of spinous dorsal fin; body depth contained 2.7-3.1 times in SL; head length 2.5-2.7 times in SL; convex interorbital area; angular preopercle, notch above angle and enlarged serrae at angle; straight or slightly concave upper edge of operculum; subequal posterior and anterior nostrils or slightly larger posterior nostril; maxilla reaches to vertical at rear edge of eye; ventral edge of maxilla in adults with prominent knob or hook-like process; 2 rows of teeth on midlateral part of lower jaw (Ref. 89707).
 Biology:  Lives on muddy open substrate, seeking refuge in holes in the mud or with solid structures, shipwrecks or debris. A flighty species (Ref; 48635). Also found on banks (Ref. 5222). Feeds on small fishes and crustaceans (stomatopods), shrimps, and pelagic tunicates (Thalia and Pyrosoma sp.) (Ref. 5222). Solitary (Ref 90102).
 IUCN Red List Status: Data deficient  (Ref. 96402)
 Threat to humans:  harmless
 Country info:   

 Entered by: Capuli, Estelita Emily - 16.10.92
 Modified by: Valdestamon, Roxanne Rei - 23.10.13
 Checked by: Capuli, Estelita Emily - 28.04.94

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