Euthynnus affinis (Cantor, 1849)
Kawakawa
photo by Randall, J.E.

 Family:  Scombridae (Mackerels, tunas, bonitos), subfamily: Scombrinae
 Max. size:  100 cm FL (male/unsexed); max.weight: 14 kg
 Environment:  pelagic-neritic; depth range 0 - 200 m, oceanodromous
 Distribution:  Indo-West Pacific: in warm waters including oceanic islands and archipelagos. A few stray specimens have been collected in the Eastern Central Pacific. Highly migratory species, Annex I of the 1982 Convention on the Law of the Sea (Ref. 26139).
 Diagnosis:  Dorsal spines (total): 10-15; Dorsal soft rays (total): 11-15; Anal spines: 0-0; Anal soft rays: 11-15; Vertebrae: 39-39. Swim bladder absent. No trace of vertebral protuberances. Anterior spines of first dorsal fin much higher than those mid-way. Interpelvic process small and bifid. Body naked except for corselet and lateral line. Posterior portion of the back with a pattern of broken oblique stripes. Description: Characterized further by dark blue to iridescent green on upper side with wavy dark bands; silvery white at lower sides and belly; sometimes with several dark spots just above pelvic fin; dorsal rays X-XV+11-15+8-10 finlets, dorsal fin separated by very narrow space; anal rays 11-15+6-8 finlets; pectoral rays 25-29; maxilla extending posterior to middle of eye; jaw teeth are small and conical, about 25-35 on each side of lower jaw; presence of palatine teeth, none on vomer (Ref. 90102).
 Biology:  Occurs in open waters but always remains close to the shoreline. The young may enter bays and harbors. Forms multi-species schools by size with other scombrid species comprising from 100 to over 5,000 individuals. A highly opportunistic predator feeding indiscriminately on small fishes, especially on clupeoids and atherinids; also on squids, crustaceans and zooplankton (Ref. 9684). Generally marketed canned and frozen; also utilized dried, salted, smoked (Ref. 9684) and fresh (Ref. 9987).
 IUCN Red List Status:   (Ref. 96402)
 Threat to humans:  reports of ciguatera poisoning
 Country info:   
 

 Entered by: Luna, Susan M. - 17.10.90
 Modified by: Casal, Christine Marie V. - 07.06.17
 Checked by: Agustin, Liza Q. - 16.03.94

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