Gambusia holbrooki Girard, 1859
Eastern mosquitofish
Gambusia holbrooki
photo by Delgado Saez, J.A.

 Family:  Poeciliidae (Poeciliids), subfamily: Poeciliinae
 Max. size:  4.7 cm TL (male/unsexed); 8 cm TL (female)
 Environment:  benthopelagic; pH range: 6 - 8.80000019073486; dH range: 40, potamodromous
 Distribution:  North America: Atlantic and Gulf Slope drainages from New Jersey south to Alabama in USA (Ref. 5723). Introduced to many countries for mosquito control, but had rare to non-existing effects on mosquitoes, and negative to perhaps neutral impact on native fishes (Ref. 12217). Established throughout southern Europe; introduced worldwide in tropical and subtropical countries (Ref. 59043).
 Diagnosis:  Dorsal spines (total): 1-1; Dorsal soft rays (total): 7-7; Anal spines: 1-1; Anal soft rays: 9-9
 Biology:  Adults occur in standing to slow-flowing water, mostly in vegetated ponds and lakes, backwaters and quiet pools of steams (Ref. 5723), typically seen shoaling at the edges (Ref. 44894). They also frequent brackish water (Ref. 5723). Adults feed on small terrestrial insects usually in the drift and amongst aquatic plants, actively selecting very small prey (Ref. 6154). Also observed to take in mosquito larvae (Ref. 41168). Introduced worldwide. Introductions to Europe have seriously threatened many endemic species (Ref. 59043). It is now widely accepted that their effect has been minimal and even may have exacerbated the problem due to their voracious appetite for natural invertebrate predators of mosquito larvae (Ref. 44894).
 IUCN Red List Status:   (Ref. 96402)
 Threat to humans:  potential pest
 Country info:   
 

 Entered by: Luna, Susan M. - 08.07.91
 Modified by: Reyes, Rodolfo B. - 02.05.16
 Checked by: Casal, Christine Marie V. - 28.01.03

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