Himantolophus groenlandicus Reinhardt, 1837
Atlantic footballfish
photo by JAMARC

 Family:  Himantolophidae (Footballfishes)
 Max. size:  4 cm SL (male/unsexed); 60 cm SL (female)
 Environment:  bathypelagic; depth range - 830 m
 Distribution:  Tropical and temperate parts of all oceans.
 Diagnosis:  Dorsal spines (total): 1-1; Dorsal soft rays (total): 5-6; Anal spines: 0-0; Anal soft rays: 4-4. Illicium short, its base in advance of eye; rays of pectoral and unpaired fins sparsely pigmented, except their bases black; two pairs of swellings in the distal end of esca, almost equal in size and shape (Ref. 13608). Description: Distinguishing characteristics of metamorphosed female: length of anterior escal appendage 2.7-16% SL in specimens less than 10 cm, 16-42% SL in larger specimens; distal escal appendages 0.9-2.1% SL in specimens less than 20 cm, 1.0-4.2% SL in larger specimens; blunt distal escal lobes; posterior escal appendages undivided proximally, simple or divided distally into 2-6 branches, total length 4.6-20% in SL in specimens less than 10 cm, 15-34% SL in larger specimens; 2-13 posterolateral appendages on and closely below base of escal bulb, usually all arranged in pairs, simple or divided into 2-9 branches, distal and longest pair 14-41% SL in specimens less than 10 cm, 23-51% SL in larger specimens (Ref. 86949).
 Biology:  Dwarf males of 4 cm length apparently do not become parasitically attached to females.
 IUCN Red List Status:   (Ref. 96402)
 Threat to humans:  harmless
 Country info:   

 Entered by: Froese, Rainer - 01.05.91
 Modified by: Kesner-Reyes, Kathleen - 09.01.12
 Checked by: Froese, Rainer - 23.03.94

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