Knipowitschia punctatissima (Canestrini, 1864)
Italian spring goby
photo by Sanna, F.

 Family:  Gobiidae (Gobies), subfamily: Gobiinae
 Max. size:  4.5 cm SL (female)
 Environment:  demersal,
 Distribution:  Europe: north-eastern Italy, including Veneto and eastern Po basin and Croatia.
 Diagnosis:  Dorsal spines (total): 8-8; Dorsal soft rays (total): 7-8; Anal spines: 1-1; Anal soft rays: 7-7; Vertebrae: 31-31. This species is distinguished from its congeners by the following characters: no head lateral line canals; scales only under pectoral; body of live breeding males with 10-15 dark, irregular bars; D1 7 rays, D2 8.5 branched rays, A 7-8.5 branched rays (Ref. 59043); interorbit with uniserial row of papillae flanking each orbit (Ref. 12215).
 Biology:  A short-lived species (less than 2 years) which occurs in small and karstic springs and streams, densely vegetated channels and slow-flowing streams (Ref. 59043); with constant water temperature, on sand or gravel with or without vegetation, also in silty areas, provided that the water remains clear (Ref. 26100). Feeds on small invertebrates. Spawns after first winter (February-July); females may spawn more than once during this season. Males defend the eggs deposited in cavities under stones, plant material or shells. Postlarvae pelagic. This species is threatened by water abstraction, which lowers the water table and habitat destruction caused by desiccation of some springs (Ref. 59043).
 IUCN Red List Status: Near Threatened  (Ref. 96402)
 Threat to humans:  harmless
 Country info:   
 

 Entered by: Cruz, Tess - 06.08.92
 Modified by: Opitz, Silvia - 14.04.12

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