Umbrina ronchus Valenciennes, 1843
Fusca drum
photo by Randall, J.E.

 Family:  Sciaenidae (Drums or croakers)
 Max. size:  100 cm TL (male/unsexed)
 Environment:  demersal; depth range 20 - 200 m
 Distribution:  Eastern Atlantic and Western Indian Ocean: western Mediterranean and Gibraltar (Ref. 3593) to the Cape and along the east coast of Africa to the Persian Gulf. Not yet recorded from Namibia but may eventually be found there (Ref. 27121).
 Diagnosis:  Dorsal spines (total): 11-11; Dorsal soft rays (total): 23-26; Anal spines: 2-2; Anal soft rays: 7-7. Juveniles brown with narrow oblique wavy stripes, becoming obscure with age (Ref. 4373).
 Biology:  Coastal species (Ref. 27000). Inhabits rocky and sandy bottoms (Ref. 2683). Juveniles may occur in littoral areas, but not in estuaries. Feeds on shrimps, worms and other bottom-dwelling invertebrates (Ref. 4780). Sold fresh (Ref. 3490).
 IUCN Red List Status: Data deficient  (Ref. 96402)
 Threat to humans:  harmless
 Country info:   

 Entered by: Luna, Susan M. - 19.07.91
 Modified by: Garilao, Cristina V. - 23.03.15
 Checked by: Garilao, Cristina V. - 02.02.97

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