Epinephelus summana (Forsskål, 1775)
Summan grouper

Suman grouper

Epinephelus summana
photo by Field, R.

 Family:  Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets), subfamily: Epinephelinae
 Max. size:  52 cm TL (male/unsexed)
 Environment:  reef-associated; depth range 1 - 30 m
 Distribution:  Western Indian Ocean: known only from the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden (Ref. 5222). Reported from Somalia and Socotra (Yemen).
 Diagnosis:  Dorsal spines (total): 11-11; Dorsal soft rays (total): 14-16; Anal spines: 3-3; Anal soft rays: 8-9. Body robust. Serrae at the angle of the preopercle slightly enlarged; the upper edge of the operculum strongly convex. Posterior nostril of adults vertically elongate. Very similar to E. ongus which has longer pectoral fins, and a narrow white margin with broad blackish submarginal band on the median fins, which are absent or poorly developed in E. summana. Generally dark olive-brown to dark brownish gray with large pale blotches (most larger than the eye) and numerous small white spots overlying this pattern. Fins covered with small white spots, except for pectoral fins where the white spots are confined to the base.
 Biology:  Occurs in shallow protected coral reefs and in lagoons or brackish-water environments (Ref. 5222). No published information on the biology of this species has been found (Ref. 5222). Sold fresh in local markets (Ref. 5222).
 IUCN Red List Status: Data deficient  (Ref. 96402)
 Threat to humans:  harmless
 Country info:  Known from Port Blair in the Andaman Sea (Ref. 45255). Outside distributional range, occurrence needs further confirmation.

 Entered by: Capuli, Estelita Emily - 12.02.93
 Modified by: Garilao, Cristina V. - 21.10.13
 Checked by: Capuli, Estelita Emily - 15.04.94

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