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References Used for Fishes of Gymnotidae
( Naked-back knifefishes )
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[ n = 140 ] 
Albert, J.S. and R. Campos-da-Paz, 1998 Phylogenetic systematics of Gymnotiformes with diagnoses of 58 clades: a review of available data. p. 419-446. In L.R. Malabarba, R.E. Reis, R.P. Vari, Z.M.S. Lucena and C.A.S. Lucena (eds.) Phylogeny and classification of neotropical fishes. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS.
Albert, J.S. and W.G.R. Crampton, 2001 Five new species of Gymnotus (Teleostei: Gymnotiformes) from an upper Amazon floodplain, with descriptions of electric organ discharges and ecology. Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwat. 12(3):241-266.
Albert, J.S. and W.G.R. Crampton, 2003 Seven new species of the neotropical electric fish Gymnotus (Teleostei, Gymnotiformes) with a redescription of G. carapo (Linnaeus). Zootaxa 287:1-54.
Albert, J.S., F.M. Fernandes-Matioli and L.F. de Almeida-Toledo, 1999 New species of Gymnotus (Gymnotiformes, Teleostei) from southeastern Brazil: toward the deconstruction of Gymnotus carapo. Copeia 1999(2):410-421.
Allard, L., A. Toussaint, R. Vigoroux and S. Brosse, 2015 Length-weight relationships of 58 fish species in French Guiana streams. J. Appl. Ichthyol. 31:567-570.
Alonso, L.E. and H.J. Berrenstein, 2006 A Rapid Biological Assessment of the Aquatic Ecosystems of the Coppename River Basin, Suriname. RAP Bull. Of Biol. Assessment 39:114-117.
Anonymous, 1999 Fish collection database of the Natural History Museum, London (formerly British Museum of Natural History (BMNH)). Natural History Museum, London (formerly British Museum of Natural History (BMNH)).
Anonymous, 2000 The icthyological collection of the Zoological Museum Hamburg (ZMH). Division of Ichthyology and Herpetology, Zoological Museum Hamburg (ZMH).
Anonymous, 2000 Fish collection database of the J.L.B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology, Grahamstown, South Africa. J.L.B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology, Grahamstown, South Africa.
Anonymous, 2001 Fish collection database of the National Museum of Natural History (Smithsonian Institution). Smithsonian Institution-Division of Fishes.
Anonymous, 2001 Fish collection database of the Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen. Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen.
Anonymous, 2002 Fish collection database of the American Museum of Natural History. American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West , NY 10024-5192, USA.
Anonymous, 2003 Fish collection of the Royal Ontario Museum. Royal Ontario Museum.
Arkhipchuk, V.V., 1999 Chromosome database. Database of Dr. Victor Arkhipchuk.
Assuncao, M.I. da Silva and H.O. Schwassmann, 1995 Reproduction and larval development of Electrophorus electricus on Marajo Island (Para, Brazil). Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwat. 6(2):175-184.
Assunçao, M.I.S. and H.O. Schwassmann, 1992 Modos de reproduçao do poraquê Electrophorus electricus (L.) (Gymnotiformes, Electrophoridae). Congr. Latino-Amer. Zool. 406:102.
Axelrod, H.R., W.E. Burgess, N. Pronek and J.G. Walls, 1991 Dr. Axelrod's Atlas of freshwater aquarium fishes. Sixth edition. T.F.H. Publications, Neptune City, New Jersey.
Baensch, H.A. and R. Riehl, 1997 Aquarien Atlas, Band 5. Mergus Verlag, Melle, Germany. 1148 p.
Barbieri, G. and M. Barbieri-Cruz, 1983 Growth and first sexual maturation size of Gymnotus carapo (Linnaeus 1758) (Pisces, Gymnotidae) in the Lobo Reservoir (State of Sao Paulo, Brazil). Rev. Hydrobiol. Trop. 16(2):195-201.
Barbosa, J.M. and K.S. Ferraz, 2008 Sistematização de nomes vulgares de peixes comerciais do Brasil: 1. Espécies dulciaqüícolas. Revista Brasileira de Engenharia de Pesca 3(3): 65-76.
Barriga, R., 1991 Peces de agua dulce del Ecuador. Revista de Informacion tecnico-cientifica, Quito, Ecuador, Politecnica, XVI(3):7-88.
Barrio, L.C., A. Caputi, L. Crispino and W. Bruno, 1991 Electric organ discharge frequency modulation evoked by water vibration in Gymnotus carapo. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 100A:555-562.
Begossi, A. and J.C. Garavello, 1990 Notes on the ethnoichthyology of fishermen from the Tocantins River (Brazil). Acta Amazon. 20:341-351.
Benedito-Cecilio, E., A.A. Agostinho and R.C.C.-M. Velho, 1997 Length-weight relationship of fishes caught in the Itaipu Reservoir, Paraná, Brazil. Naga ICLARM Q. 20(3/4):57-61.
Bennett, M.V.L., 1971 Electric organs. p. 347-491. In W.S. Hoar and D.J. Randall (eds) Fish Physiology, Vol. V. Academic Press, London.
Black-Cleworth, P., 1970 The role of electric discharges in the non-reproductive social behavior of Gymnotus carapo (Gymnotidae, Pisces). Anim. Behav. Monogr. 3:1-77.
Bordenave, S., P.A. Lopez, M.C.P. Beltrami and A.S. Fenocchio, 1992 Levantamento citogenético em peixes do Rio Paraná (Chaco, Argentina). III. Gymnotus carapo (Pisces, Gymnotoidei). p. 42. In IV. Simp. Citogenet. Evol. e Aplic. De Peixes Neotropicais, Rio de Janeiro-R.J.
Borin, L.A. and H.F. Julio, 1994 Ocorrencia de um novo citótipo de Gymnotus carapo (Siluriformes - Gymnotoidei) no alto Paraná. p. 43. In V. Simp. Citogenet. Evol. e Aplica. de Peixes Neotropicais, Botucatu-SP.
Boujard, T., 1992 Space-time organization of riverine fish communities in French Guiana. Environ. Biol. Fish. 34:235-246.
Boujard, T., M. Pascal, F.J. Meunier and P.-Y. Le Bail, 1997 Poissons de Guyane. Guide écologique de l'Approuague et de la réserve des Nouragues. Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Paris, 219 p.
Breder, C.M. and D.E. Rosen, 1966 Modes of reproduction in fishes. T.F.H. Publications, Neptune City, New Jersey. 941 p.
Britski, H.A., K.Z. de S> de Silimon and B.S. Lopes, 2007 Peixes do Pantanal: manual de identificaçäo, 2 ed. re. ampl. Brasília, DF: Embrapa Informaçäo Tecnológica, 227 p.
Bussing, W.A., 1998 Peces de las aguas continentales de Costa Rica [Freshwater fishes of Costa Rica]. 2nd Ed. San José Costa Rica: Editorial de la Universidad de Costa Rica. 468 p.
Campos-da-Paz, R., 2003 Gymnotidae (Naked-back knifefishes). p. 483-486. In R.E. Reis, S.O. Kullander and C.J. Ferraris, Jr. (eds.) Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America. Porto Alegre EDIPUCRS, Brasil.
Campos-da-Paz, R., 2001 Electrophoridae. p. In [Editorial list.]. Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America. In preparation.
Campos-da-Paz, R., 2002 Gymnotus diamantinensis, a new species of electric knifefish from upper rio Arinos basin, Brazil (Ostariophysi: Gymnotidae). Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwat. 13(2):185-192.
Campos-da-Paz, R., 2000 Taxonomic status of Rhamphichthys cingulatus Brind and a more precise assignment of the type-locality of Gymnotus coatesi La Monte (Ostariophysi: Gymnotiformes). Copeia 2000(4):1114-1117.
Campos-da-Paz, R. and W.J.E.M. Costa, 1996 Gymnotus bahianus sp. nov., a new gymnotid fish from eastern Brazil (Teleostei: Ostariophysi: Gymnotiformes), with evidence for the monophyly of the genus. Copeia 1996(4):937-944.
Carl, H., 2003 Danish fish names. Zoological Museum of Copenhagen. Unpublished.
Casatti, L., M.A. Pérez-Mayorga, F.R. Carvalho, G.L. Brejão and I.D. da Costa, 2013 The stream fish fauna from the rio Machado basin, Rondônia State, Brazil. Check List 9(6):1496-1504.
Castro, R.M.C. and L. Casatti, 1997 The fish fauna from a small forest stream of the Upper Parana River Basin, southern Brazil. Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwat. 7(3/4):337-352.
Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, 2003 Chinese aquatic germplasm resources database.
Claro-García, A., L.J. Soares Vieira, L.R. Jarduli, V.P. Abrahão and O.A. Shibatta, 2013 Fishes (Osteichthyes: Actinopterygii) from igarapés of the rio Acre basin, Brazilian Amazon. Check List 9(6):1410-1438.
Cognato, D., M.M. Richer-de-Forges, J.S. Albert and W.G.R. Crampton, 2008 Gymnotus chimarrao, a new species of electric fish (Gymnotiformes: Gymnotidae) from southern Brazil. Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwat. [2007] 18(4):375-382.
Cordiviola de Yuan, E. and C. Pignalberi de Hassan, 1985 Fish population in the Paraná River: lentic environments of Diamante and San Pedro areas (Argentine Republic). Hydrobiologia 127:213-218.
Cox, R.T., 1938 The electric eel at home. Bull. N.Y. zool. Soc. 41:59-65.
Cox, R.T., 1943 Electric fish. Am. J. Physics. 11:13-22.
Crampton, W.G.R. and C.D. Hopkins, 2005 Nesting and paternal care in the weakly electric fish, Gymnotus (Gymnotiformes: Gymnotidae) with descriptions of larval and adult electric organ discharges of two species. Copeia 2005(1):48-60.
Crampton, W.G.R. and J.S. Albert, 2003 Redescription of Gymnotus coropinae (Gymnotiformes, Gymnotidae), an often misidentified species of Neotropical electric fish, with notes on natural history and electric signals. Zootaxa 348:1-20.
Crampton, W.G.R., D.H. Thorsen and J.S. Albert, 2005 Three new species from a diverse, sympatric assemblage of the electric fish Gymnotus (Gymnotiformes: Gymnotidae) in the lowland Amazon basin, with notes on ecology. Copeia 2005(1):82-99.
Crampton, W.G.R., N.R. Lovejoy and J.S. Albert, 2003 Gymnotus ucamara: a new species of neotropical electric fish from the Peruvian Amazon (Ostariophysi: Gymnotidae), with notes on ecology and electric organ discharges. Zootaxa 277:1-18.
da Costa, M.R., T. Moreti and F.G. Araújo, 2014 Length-weight relationships of 20 fish species in the Guandu River, Rio de Janeiro State, Southeastern Brazil. J. Appl. Ichthyol. 30:200-201.
da Costa, M.R., T. Moreti, W. Uehara, H.K. dos Santos and F.G. Araujo, 2015 Length-weight relationships for 15 fish species from Atlantic rain forest streams, southeastern Brazil. J. Appl. Ichthyol. 31:809-810.
eElurikkus, 2015 eElurikkus koondab ühte portaali Eesti eluslooduse andmed.
Eschmeyer, W.N., 1997 PISCES. Eschmeyer's PISCES database as published on the Internet in June 1997, URL: gopher://
Eschmeyer, W.N. (ed.), 1998 Catalog of fishes. Special Publication, California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco. 3 vols. 2905 p.
Eschmeyer, W.N. (ed.), 1999 Catalog of fishes. Updated database version of November 1999. Catalog databases as made available to FishBase in November 1999.
Eschmeyer, W.N. (ed.), 2009 Catalog of fishes. Updated database version of March 2009. Catalog databases as made available to FishBase in March 2009.
FAO-FIES, 2008 Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) species list. Retrieved from, 29 April 2008.
FAO-FIES, 2010 Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) species list. Retrieved from, March 2010.
FAO-FIES, 2012 Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) species list. Retrieved from, March 2012.
FAO-FIES, 2014 Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) species list. Retrieved from, April 2014.
FAO-FIES, 2015 Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) species list. Retrieved from, [accessed 13/04/2015].
Fernandes, F.M.C., J.S. Albert, M.F.Z. Daniel-Silva, C.E. Lopes, W.G.R. Crampton and L.F. Almeida-Toledo, 2005 A new Gymnotus (Teleostei: Gymnotiformes: Gymnotidae) from the Pantanal Matogrossense of Brazil and adjacent drainages: continued documention of a cryptic fauna. Zootaxa 933:1-14.
Fernandes, F.M.C., L.F. Almeida-Toledo and S.A. Toledo, 1992 Ocorrência de triploidia natural em Gymnotus carapo (Pisces, Gymnotoidei). p. 41. In IV. Simp. Citogenet. Evol. e Aplic. de Peixes Neotropicais, Rio de Janeiro-RJ.
Fernandes, F.M.C., L.F. Almeida-Toledo and S.A. Toledo, 1994 Descriçao de um novo citótipo no gênero Gymnotus (Pisces, Siluriformes) em rios da Bacia superior do Paraná. p. 44. In V. Simp. Citogenet. Evol. e Aplic. de Peixes Neotropicais, Botucatu-SP.
Flower, M.S.S., 1925 Contributions to our knowledge of the duration of life in vertebrate animals - I. Fishes. Proc. of the Zool. Soc. of London 1925(1):247-267.
Foresti, F., 1987 Estudos cromossômicos em Gymnotiformes (Pisces, Ostariophysi). "Livre Docência" Thesis, Inst. Basico de Biol. Médica e Agricola, Uni. Estad. Paulista "Julio de Mesquita Filho", Botucatu.
Foresti, F., L.F. Almeida Toledo and S.A. Toledo F, 1981 Polymorphic nature of nucleolus organizer regions in fishes. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 31(3):137-144.
Foresti, F., L.F. de Almeida Toledo and S.A. Toledo, 1984 Chromosome studies in Gymnotus carapo and Gymnotus sp. (Pisces, Gymnotidae). Caryologia 37(1-2):141-146.
Grabda, E. and T. Heese, 1991 Polskie nazewnictwo popularne kraglouste i ryby. Cyclostomata et Pisces. Wyzsza Szkola Inzynierska w Koszalinie. Koszalin, Poland. 171 p. (in Polish).
Graça, W.J.D. and C.S. Pavanelli, 2007 Peixes da planíce de inundação do alto do rio Paraná e áreas adjacentes. EDUEM, Maringá, 241 p.
Halperin, D.C., 1979 Circadian rhythms of electric organ discharge activity in the electric eel (Electrophorus electricus). MS thesis, Hunter college, New York. 56 p.
Hinegardner, R. and D.E. Rosen, 1972 Cellular DNA content and the evolution of teleostean fishes. Am. Nat. 106(951):621-644.
Hureau, J.-C., 1991 La base de données GICIM : Gestion informatisée des collections ichthyologiques du Muséum. p. 225-227. In Atlas Préliminaire des Poissons d'Eau Douce de France. Conseil Supérieur de la Pêche, Ministère de l'Environnement, CEMAGREF et Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris.
Iguchi, K., N. Matsubara, T. Yodo and K. Maekawa, 2004 Individual food niche specialization in stream-dwelling charr. Ichthyol. Res. 51:321-326.
Kenny, J.S., 1995 Views from the bridge: a memoir on the freshwater fishes of Trinidad. Julian S. Kenny, Maracas, St. Joseph, Trinidad and Tobago. 98 p.
Kirschbaum, F., 1995 Reproduction and development in mormyriform and gymnotiform fishes. p.267-301. In P. Moller (ed.) Electric fishes:history and behavior. Fish and Fisheries Series 117. Chapman & Hall, London.
Klinkhardt, M, M. Tesche and H. Greven, 1995 Database of fish chromosomes. Westarp Wissenschaften.
Kramer, B., J. Tautz and H. Markl, 1981 The EOD sound response in weakly electric fish. J. Comp. Physiol. 143A:435-441.
Kullander, S.O., 2003 Checklist of Swedish common names. Personal Communication. Provided excel file.
Leggatt, R.A. and G.K. Iwama, 2003 Occurrence of polyploidy in the fishes. Rev. Fish Biol. Fish. 13:237-246.
Lighthill, J. and R. Blake, 1990 Biofluidynamics of balistiform and gymnotiform locomotion. Part 1. Biological background and analysis by elongated-body theory. J. Fluid Mech. 212:183-207.
Lindsey, C.C., 1978 Form, function and locomotory habits in fish. p. 1-100. In W. S. Hoar and D. J. Randall (eds.) Fish Physiology VII. Academic Press, New York.
Linnaeus, C., 1758 Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordinus, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, Holmiae. 824 p.
López, H.L., A.M. Miquelarena and J. Ponte Gómez, 2005 Biodiversidad y distribución de la ictiofauna Mesopotámica. Miscelánea 14:311-354.
Lopez, H.L., R.C. Menni and A.M. Miguelarena, 1987 Lista de los peces de agua dulce de la Argentina. Biologia Acuatica No. 12, 50 p. (Instituto de Limnologia "Dr. Raul A. Ringuelet").
Loureiro, M. and A. Silva, 2006 A new species of Brachyhypopomus (Gymnotiformes, Hypopomidae) from Northeast Uruguay. Copeia 2006(4):665-673.
Mago-Leccia, F., 1994 Electric fishes of the continental waters of America. Fundacion para el Desarrollo de las Ciencias Fisicas, Matematicas y Naturales (FUDECI), Biblioteca de la Academia de Ciencias Fisicas. Matematicas y Naturales, Caracas, Venezuela. vol. 29 . 206 p.
Maldonado-Ocampo, J.A. and J.S. Albert, 2004 Gymnotus ardilai: a new species of Neotropical electric fish (Ostariophysi: Gymnotidae) from the Rio Magdalena basin of Colombia. Zootaxa 759:1-10.
Maxime, E.L. and J.S. Albert, 2009 A new species of Gymnotus (Gymnotiformes: Gymnotidae) from the Fitzcarrald Arch of southeastern Peru. Neotrop. Ichthyol. 7(4):579-585.
Maxime, E.L., F.C.T. Lima and J.S. Albert, 2011 A new species of Gymnotus (Gymnotiformes: Gymnotidae) from Rio Tiquié in Northern Brazil. Copeia 2011(1):77-81.
Mérigoux, S. and D. Ponton, 1998 Body shape, diet and ontogenetic diet shifts in young fish of the Sinnamary River, French Guiana, South America. J. Fish Biol. 52(3):556-569.
Mérona, B. de and J. Rankin-de-Mérona, 2004 Food resource partitioning in a fish community of the central Amazon floodplain. Neotrop. Ichthyol. 2(2):75-84.
Milhomem, S.S.R., W.G.R. Crampton, J.C. Pieczarka, G.H. Shetka, D.S. Silva and C.Y. Nagamachi, 2012 Gymnotus capanema, a new species of electric knife fish (Gymnotiformes, Gymnotidae) from eastern Amazonia, with comments on an unusual karyotype. J. Fish Biol. (DOI: 10.1111/j.1095-8649.2012.03219.x).
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Tello, S. and H. Sánchez, 1995 To be filled. Unpublished.
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Westby, G.W.M., 1975 Has the latency dependent response of Gymnotus carapo to discharge-triggered stimuli a bearing on electric fish communication?. J. Comp. Physiol. 96:307-341.
Westby, G.W.M., 1975 Further analysis of the individual discharge characteristics predicting social dominance in the electric fish, Gymnotus carapo. Anim. Behav. 223:249-260.
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