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Larvae Information Summary for  Gnathanodon speciosus
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Main Ref: Watson, W., S.R. Charter, H.G. Moser, D.A. Ambrose and E.M. Sandknop 1996
Yolk-sac larvae
  max min mod Ref.
Length at birth (mm)        
Preanal L. % TL        
Place of development planktonic
Larval area Northeastern Pacific (California Current Region); Northwestern Pacific (Japan)
Yolk-sac       Ref:  
Yolk   Oil globules  
Rows on tail  
Other melanophores on tail  
Post larvae
Striking feature none
Striking shape lateral short and/or deep dorsal  
Striking feature none
Shape of gut triangular
Gas bladder   early   late  
Spinal armature   early opercular spines only late  
Pigmentation early
Rows on tail no rows
Other melanophores on tail tail partly covered with melanophores
Melanophores on head + trunk melanophores on head + trunk
Pigmentation late
Rows on tail no rows
Other melanophores on tail tail partly covered with melanophores
Melanophores on head + trunk melanophores on head + trunk
Peritoneum with row of melanophores
Pectorals normal  
Pelvics normal (i.e. small or absent)  
Dorsal fin spines VII+I, rays 18-21; anal fin spines II+I, rays 15-18; large head; early development of 2 series of preopercular spines and median supraoccipital crest; relatively deep-bodied. Pigmentation: Preflexion: Heavy on middorsal line, with development, expanding ventrad along epaxial myosepta; scattered on head; on snout; distally on lips; ventrally on gut and body; few posteriorly on lateral midline anterior to caudal peduncle; internally dorsally on gas bladder. Flexion: Scattered on head and body ending anterior to caudal peduncle, light on gut; lacking under eye; on pelvic fin and anal pterygiophores; dashes beginning even with gut on dorsal midline and on lateral midline ending anterior to caudal peduncle. Postflexion: Scattered on entire head and body; on first dorsal fin and pelvic fin; on pectoral fin base and proximally on rays; anteriorly on anal fin; proximally on caudal fin; silver coloration beginning on cheek and gut (gold in fresh specimens). Transformation: 5-6 vertical bars forming; may have a blotch on each caudal lobe. Juvenile: Silver with about 13 vertical bars alternating between heavy and light, beginning across eye, ending on caudal peduncle. Sequence of fin development: principal caudal fin rays, second dorsal fin and anal fin, first dorsal fin, pelvic fin, procurrent dorsal fin rays, pectoral fin.
  L 1st feeding Ref. Months of presence of larvae    Ref. 
max     Jan Feb Mar Apr
min   May Jun Jul Aug
mod     Sep Oct Nov Dec
Water parameters     Metric characters
Entered by: Luna,Susan M. - 03.09.01
Modified by: Luna,Susan M. - 20.03.03
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