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Larvae Information Summary for  Epinephelus costae
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Main Ref: Bertolini, F., U. D'Ancona, E. Padoa Montalenti, S. Ranzi, L. Sanzo, A. Sparta, E. Tortonese and M. Vialli 1956
Yolk-sac larvae
  max min mod Ref.
Length at birth (mm)        
Preanal L. % TL        
Place of development  
Larval area to be filled
Yolk-sac       Ref:  
Yolk   Oil globules  
Rows on tail  
Other melanophores on tail  
Post larvae
Striking feature some dorsal fin rays very elongated
Striking shape lateral normal (not striking) dorsal normal (not striking)
Striking feature some dorsal fin rays very elongated
Shape of gut triangular
Gas bladder   early   late  
Spinal armature   early several different spines late several different spines
Rows on tail no rows
Other melanophores on tail tail with single melanophore
Rows on tail no rows
Other melanophores on tail tail with single melanophore
Peritoneum covered with melanophores
Pectorals normal  
Pelvics with elongated fin rays with melanophores
Some melanophores at the base of the caudal fin rays. Pelvic finrays also elongated together with dorsal finrays, each ray with small transverse teeth.
Meristic characters
  max min mod Ref.
Total number of myomeres     24  
Preanal number of myomeres 10 9 10  
  L 1st feeding Ref. Months of presence of larvae
max     Jan Feb Mar Apr
min   May Jun Jul Aug
mod     Sep Oct Nov Dec
Water parameters     Metric characters
Entered by: Papasissi,Christine - 29.10.90
Modified by: Capuli,Estelita Emily - 25.08.94
Checked by: Giovanardi,Otello - 15.02.91
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