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Sparus aurata  Linnaeus, 1758

Gilthead seabream
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Sparus aurata
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分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 輻鰭魚綱 (條鰭魚) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Sparidae (Porgies)
Etymology: Sparus: Latin, sparus = a fish with a golden head (Ref. 45335).   More on author: Linnaeus.

環境 / 氣候 / 範圍 生態學

; 海洋; 半鹹淡水 居於水底的; 深度上下限 1 - 150 m (Ref. 35388), usually 1 - 30 m (Ref. 54890).    , preferred 26°C (Ref. 107945); 62°N - 15°N, 17°W - 43°E (Ref. 54890)

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Eastern Atlantic: British Isles, Strait of Gibraltar to Cape Verde and around the Canary Islands; also in the Mediterranean (Ref. 3688). Reported from the Black Sea (Ref. 12781). Reports from New Zealand refer to Pagrus auratus (Foster 1801) (Ref. 5755, 9258).

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm ?, range 33 - 40 cm
Max length : 70.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 35388); common length : 35.0 cm SL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 4781); 最大體重: 17.2 kg (Ref. 40637); 最大年齡: 11 年 (Ref. 7253)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 11; 背的軟條 (總數): 13-14; 臀棘 3; 臀鰭軟條: 11 - 12. Body tall, with large black spot on the gill cover. Snout more than twice as long as the eye diameter (Ref. 35388).

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Found in seagrass beds and sandy bottoms as well as in the surf zone commonly to depths of about 30 m, but adults may occur to 150 m depth. A sedentary fish, either solitary or in small aggregations. In spring, they often occur in brackish water coastal lagoons and estuaries. Mainly carnivorous, accessorily herbivorous (Ref. 3688). Feed on shellfish, including mussels and oysters. One of the most important fishes in saline and hypersaline aquaculture. Utilized fresh and eaten steamed, pan-fried, broiled, boiled, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9987).

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

Males become females at about 3 years of age (Ref. 2715, 28504). Protandric hermaphrodite species, maturing first as male (during the first or second year of age) and after the second or third year of age, as female. Spawning happens generally from October to December, with sequenced spawning during the whole period. Incubation lasts about 2 days at 16-1 7°C. Larval stages last about 50 days at 1 7.5°C or about 43 days at 20°C. Egg size 0.9-1.1 mm, larval length at hatching 2.5-3.0 mm. Simultaneous hermaphroditism is suggested for this species (Ref. 103751).

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 | 合作者

Bauchot, M.-L. and J.-C. Hureau, 1990. Sparidae. p. 790-812. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 3688)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

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人類使用

漁業: 商業性; 養殖: 商業性; 游釣魚種: 是的
FAO(養殖: 產生, 魚種描繪; 漁業: 產生, 魚種描繪; publication : search) | FIRMS (Stock assessments) | FisheriesWiki | 周邊海洋

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