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Sprattus sprattus  (Linnaeus, 1758)

European sprat
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Image of Sprattus sprattus (European sprat)
Sprattus sprattus
Picture by Svensen, R.

التصنيف / Names الأسماء الشائعة | مرادفات | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

شعاعيات الزعانف > Clupeiformes (Herrings) > Clupeidae (Herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens) > Clupeinae
Etymology: Sprattus: Old German, sprotte (1611) = a small fish, Clupea sp. (Ref. 45335).

البيئة / مناخ / المدى البيئة

; بحري; مياه مخلوطة; محيطية (Ref. 51243); نطاق العمق 10 - 150 m (Ref. 6302).   Temperate, preferred 11°C (Ref. 107945); 66°N - 30°N, 11°W - 42°E

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Northeast Atlantic: North Sea and adjacent waters as far north as the Lofoten Area and the west of the British Isles, and Baltic Sea south to Morocco; also in northern Mediterranean (Gulf of Lion and the Adriatic Sea) and Black Sea.

Length at first maturity / الحجم / وزن / العمر

Maturity: Lm 10.6, range 8 - 12 cm
Max length : 16.0 cm SL ذكر/ مختلط الجنس; (Ref. 188); common length : 12.0 cm SL ذكر/ مختلط الجنس; (Ref. 188); العمر: 6 سنين (Ref. 3561)

وصف مختصر الوصف الخارجي | قياسات المظهر الخارجي

الأشواك الظهرية (المجموع): 0; الأشعة الظهرية الناعمة (المجموع): 13-21; شوكة شرجية 0; أشعه شرجية لينه: 12 - 23. Lower jaw slightly projecting, gill cover without any bony radiating striae, teeth rarely present on vomer; belly with a strong keel of scutes; last two anal fin rays not enlarged. No dark spots on flanks. Pterotic bulla absent.

أحياء     المصطلحات (على سبيل المثال epibenthic)

Usually inshore schooling, sometimes entering estuaries (especially the juveniles) and tolerating salinities as low as 4 ppt. Shows strong migrations between winter feeding and summer spawning grounds. Moves to the surface at night. Feeds on planktonic crustaceans (Ref. 9900). Spawns at depths of 10-20 m producing 6,000-14,000 pelagic eggs (Ref. 35388). Some spawn almost throughout the year, mainly in spring and summer, near the coast or up to 100 km out to sea, the young drifting inshore. Sold as 'brislings' to canneries. Sprat are used in the production of fish meal and as mink food, less for human consumption (Ref. 9900). Utilized fresh, smoked, canned and frozen; can be pan-fried and broiled (Ref. 9988).

Life cycle and mating behavior النضج | التكاثر | وضع البيض | بيض | الخصوبة | Larvae

Some spawn almost year round but mainly in spring and summer, near to the coast or up to 100 km out to sea, the young drifting inshore. Individual period of spawning takes about two months (Ref. 92054).

المرجع الرئيسي Upload your references | مراجع | المنظم | المتعاونين

Whitehead, P.J.P., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeioidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

خطر للأنسان

  Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 30911)




استخدامات بشرية

مصائد: ذو قيمة تاجرية عالية; طعم: usually

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