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Sprattus sprattus  (Linnaeus, 1758)

European sprat
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Image of Sprattus sprattus (European sprat)
Sprattus sprattus
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Classificatie / Names Populaire namen | Synoniemen | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (Straalvinnigen) > Clupeiformes (Herrings) > Clupeidae (Herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens) > Clupeinae
Etymology: Sprattus: Old German, sprotte (1611) = a small fish, Clupea sp. (Ref. 45335).

Omgeving / Klimaat / Range Ecologie

; marien; brakwater; oceanodroom (Ref. 51243); diepteverspreiding 10 - 150 m (Ref. 6302).   Temperate, preferred 11°C (Ref. 107945); 66°N - 30°N, 11°W - 42°E

Verspreiding Landen | FAO regio's | Ecosystems | Voorkomen | Point map | Introducties | Faunafri

Northeast Atlantic: North Sea and adjacent waters as far north as the Lofoten Area and the west of the British Isles, and Baltic Sea south to Morocco; also in northern Mediterranean (Gulf of Lion and the Adriatic Sea) and Black Sea.

Length at first maturity / Size / Gewicht / Leeftijd

Maturity: Lm 10.6, range 8 - 12 cm
Max length : 16.0 cm SL mannelijk/geslacht niet bekend; (Ref. 188); common length : 12.0 cm SL mannelijk/geslacht niet bekend; (Ref. 188); Maximaal vermelde leeftijd: 6 jaren (Ref. 3561)

Korte beschrijving Morfologie | Morfometrie

Dorsale stekels (totaal): 0; Dorsale zachte stralen (totaal): 13-21; Anale stekels 0; Anale zachte stralen: 12 - 23. Lower jaw slightly projecting, gill cover without any bony radiating striae, teeth rarely present on vomer; belly with a strong keel of scutes; last two anal fin rays not enlarged. No dark spots on flanks. Pterotic bulla absent.

Biologie     Verklarende woordenlijst (b.v. epibenthic)

Usually inshore schooling, sometimes entering estuaries (especially the juveniles) and tolerating salinities as low as 4 ppt. Shows strong migrations between winter feeding and summer spawning grounds. Moves to the surface at night. Feeds on planktonic crustaceans (Ref. 9900). Spawns at depths of 10-20 m producing 6,000-14,000 pelagic eggs (Ref. 35388). Some spawn almost throughout the year, mainly in spring and summer, near the coast or up to 100 km out to sea, the young drifting inshore. Sold as 'brislings' to canneries. Sprat are used in the production of fish meal and as mink food, less for human consumption (Ref. 9900). Utilized fresh, smoked, canned and frozen; can be pan-fried and broiled (Ref. 9988).

Life cycle and mating behavior Geslachtsrijpheid | Voortplanting | Kuitschieten | Eieren | Fecundity | Larven

Some spawn almost year round but mainly in spring and summer, near to the coast or up to 100 km out to sea, the young drifting inshore. Individual period of spawning takes about two months (Ref. 92054).

Voornaamste referentie Upload your references | Referenties | Coördinator | Medewerkers

Whitehead, P.J.P., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeioidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)

Status op de Rode Lijst van het IUCN (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Gevaarlijk voor mensen

  Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 30911)




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