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Sprattus sprattus  (Linnaeus, 1758)

European sprat
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Image of Sprattus sprattus (European sprat)
Sprattus sprattus
Picture by Svensen, R.

Classificação / Names Nomes comuns | Sinônimos | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (peixes com raios nas barbatanas) > Clupeiformes (Herrings) > Clupeidae (Herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens) > Clupeinae
Etymology: Sprattus: Old German, sprotte (1611) = a small fish, Clupea sp. (Ref. 45335).

Ambiente / Clima / Intervalo Ecologia

; marinhas; estuarina; oceanódromos (Ref. 51243); intervalo de profundidade 10 - 150 m (Ref. 6302).   Temperate, preferred 11°C (Ref. 107945); 66°N - 30°N, 11°W - 42°E

Distribuição Países | Áreas FAO | Ecossistemas | Ocorrências | Point map | Introduções | Faunafri

Northeast Atlantic: North Sea and adjacent waters as far north as the Lofoten Area and the west of the British Isles, and Baltic Sea south to Morocco; also in northern Mediterranean (Gulf of Lion and the Adriatic Sea) and Black Sea.

Length at first maturity / Tamanho / Peso / Idade

Maturity: Lm 10.6, range 8 - 12 cm
Max length : 16.0 cm SL macho/indeterminado; (Ref. 188); common length : 12.0 cm SL macho/indeterminado; (Ref. 188); Idade máx. registada: 6 anos (Ref. 3561)

Descrição suscinta Morfologia | Morfometria

Espinhos dorsais (total): 0; Raios dorsais (total): 13-21; Espinhos anais 0; Raios anais : 12 - 23. Lower jaw slightly projecting, gill cover without any bony radiating striae, teeth rarely present on vomer; belly with a strong keel of scutes; last two anal fin rays not enlarged. No dark spots on flanks. Pterotic bulla absent.

Biologia     Glossário (p.ex. epibenthic)

Usually inshore schooling, sometimes entering estuaries (especially the juveniles) and tolerating salinities as low as 4 ppt. Shows strong migrations between winter feeding and summer spawning grounds. Moves to the surface at night. Feeds on planktonic crustaceans (Ref. 9900). Spawns at depths of 10-20 m producing 6,000-14,000 pelagic eggs (Ref. 35388). Some spawn almost throughout the year, mainly in spring and summer, near the coast or up to 100 km out to sea, the young drifting inshore. Sold as 'brislings' to canneries. Sprat are used in the production of fish meal and as mink food, less for human consumption (Ref. 9900). Utilized fresh, smoked, canned and frozen; can be pan-fried and broiled (Ref. 9988).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturidade | Reprodução | Desova | Ovos | Fecundidade | Larvas

Some spawn almost year round but mainly in spring and summer, near to the coast or up to 100 km out to sea, the young drifting inshore. Individual period of spawning takes about two months (Ref. 92054).

Referência principal Upload your references | Referências | Coordenador | Colaboradores

Whitehead, P.J.P., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeioidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)

Status na Lista Vermelha da IUCN (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Perigo para os humanos

  Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 30911)




Uso pelos humanos

Pescarias: altamente comercial; isca: usually

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