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Gymnocephalus cernua  (Linnaeus, 1758)

Ruffe
إضافة ملاحظاتك Fish Watcher
Native range
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Gymnocephalus cernua   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
ارفع صور و مقاطع فيديو
Pictures | صور قوقل
Image of Gymnocephalus cernua (Ruffe)
Gymnocephalus cernua
Picture by Bednarzik, J.

التصنيف / Names الأسماء الشائعة | مرادفات | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

شعاعيات الزعانف > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Percidae (Perches) > Percinae
Etymology: Gymnocephalus: Greek, gymnos = naked + Greek, kephale = head (Ref. 45335).

البيئة / مناخ / المدى البيئة

; المياه العذبة; مياه مخلوطة القاع; pH range: 7.0 - 7.5; dH range: 8 - 12; سمكة نهرية (Ref. 51243); نطاق العمق 10 - ? m (Ref. 9696).   Temperate; 10°C - 20°C (Ref. 13371), preferred ?; 74°N - 43°N, 6°W - 169°E

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Europe: Caspian, Black, Baltic and North Sea basins; Great Britain; north to about 69° N in Scandinavia. Asia: Aral Sea basin, Arctic Ocean basin eastward to Kolyma drainage. Several countries report adverse ecological impact after introduction.

Length at first maturity / الحجم / وزن / العمر

Maturity: Lm 10.5  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 25.0 cm TL ذكر/ مختلط الجنس; (Ref. 556); common length : 12.0 cm TL ذكر/ مختلط الجنس; (Ref. 556); أعلا وزن تم نشرة: 400.00 g (Ref. 556); العمر: 10 سنين (Ref. 59043)

وصف مختصر الوصف الخارجي | قياسات المظهر الخارجي

الأشواك الظهرية (المجموع): 11 - 19; الأشعة الظهرية الناعمة (المجموع): 11-16; شوكة شرجية 2; أشعه شرجية لينه: 5 - 6; فقرات: 35 - 36. Distinguished uniquely from its congeners by its body depth 24-27% SL. Differs further from other members of the genus by the combination of having a flank yellowish with numerous, small, irregular, dark blotches and having 11-16 dorsal spines (Ref. 59043). Caudal fin with 16 to 17 rays (Ref. 40476). Dorsal fins are fused. Color brownish with dark spots (Ref. 35388).

أحياء     المصطلحات (على سبيل المثال epibenthic)

Inhabits eutrophic lakes, lowland and piedmont rivers. Most abundant in estuaries of large rivers, brackish lakes with salinities up to 10-12 ppt and reservoirs. In general, its abundance increases with increased eutrophication (Ref. 59043). Reported to prefer still or slow-flowing water with soft bottom and without vegetation (Ref. 59043) and deep water with deposits of sand and gravel (Ref. 9696). Can tolerate some degradation of the environment (Ref. 30578). Can co-exist in deep lakes with Perca fluviatilis. Both species partly occur at different depths with Gymnocephalus cernua being more abundant in deeper layers (Ref. 59043). The membranous external walls of the head canals of this species provide high directional sensitivity; can feed at night in the dark using the lateral line system; feeds on zooplankton, chironomids, oligochaetes and amphipods (Ref. 10999). Pelagic in coastal lakes and tidal estuaries, preying on zooplankton and fish. Spawns on a variety of substrates at depths of about 3 m or less (Ref. 59043). White to yellow eggs in sticky strands are found on rocks and weed in shallow water (Ref. 41678). Used as bait for pike (Ref. 6258). Females live up to 10 year while males up to 7 years (Ref. 59043).

Life cycle and mating behavior النضج | التكاثر | وضع البيض | بيض | الخصوبة | Larvae

Eggs turn adhesive on contact with water and stick to stones or plants. Females lay eggs in two or more portions, usually separated by about 30 days in summer. First portion of eggs is larger the second portion. Larvae without or with only a brief, pelagic larval stage, switching early to benthic life, secretive and solitary, not forming schools. Larval survival is poor below 10°C and above 20°C (Ref. 59043).

المرجع الرئيسي Upload your references | مراجع | المنظم | المتعاونين

Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

خطر للأنسان

  Potential pest




استخدامات بشرية

مصائد: غير مهمة تجارياً; لعبة سمكه: نعم; طعم: usually
FAO(مصائد: الأنتاج; publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | البحر حولنا

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