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Gymnocephalus cernua  (Linnaeus, 1758)

Ruffe
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Native range
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Gymnocephalus cernua   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Gymnocephalus cernua
Picture by Bednarzik, J.

分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 輻鰭魚綱 (條鰭魚) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Percidae (Perches) > Percinae
Etymology: Gymnocephalus: Greek, gymnos = naked + Greek, kephale = head (Ref. 45335).

環境 / 氣候 / 範圍 生態學

; 淡水; 半鹹淡水 居於水底的; pH range: 7.0 - 7.5; dH range: 8 - 12; 河川洄游 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 10 - ? m (Ref. 9696).    10°C - 20°C (Ref. 13371), preferred ?; 74°N - 43°N, 6°W - 169°E

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

Europe: Caspian, Black, Baltic and North Sea basins; Great Britain; north to about 69° N in Scandinavia. Asia: Aral Sea basin, Arctic Ocean basin eastward to Kolyma drainage. Several countries report adverse ecological impact after introduction.

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm 10.5  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 25.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 556); common length : 12.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 556); 最大體重: 400.00 g (Ref. 556); 最大年齡: 10 年 (Ref. 59043)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 11 - 19; 背的軟條 (總數): 11-16; 臀棘 2; 臀鰭軟條: 5 - 6; 脊椎骨: 35 - 36. Distinguished uniquely from its congeners by its body depth 24-27% SL. Differs further from other members of the genus by the combination of having a flank yellowish with numerous, small, irregular, dark blotches and having 11-16 dorsal spines (Ref. 59043). Caudal fin with 16 to 17 rays (Ref. 40476). Dorsal fins are fused. Color brownish with dark spots (Ref. 35388).

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Inhabits eutrophic lakes, lowland and piedmont rivers. Most abundant in estuaries of large rivers, brackish lakes with salinities up to 10-12 ppt and reservoirs. In general, its abundance increases with increased eutrophication (Ref. 59043). Reported to prefer still or slow-flowing water with soft bottom and without vegetation (Ref. 59043) and deep water with deposits of sand and gravel (Ref. 9696). Can tolerate some degradation of the environment (Ref. 30578). Can co-exist in deep lakes with Perca fluviatilis. Both species partly occur at different depths with Gymnocephalus cernua being more abundant in deeper layers (Ref. 59043). The membranous external walls of the head canals of this species provide high directional sensitivity; can feed at night in the dark using the lateral line system; feeds on zooplankton, chironomids, oligochaetes and amphipods (Ref. 10999). Pelagic in coastal lakes and tidal estuaries, preying on zooplankton and fish. Spawns on a variety of substrates at depths of about 3 m or less (Ref. 59043). White to yellow eggs in sticky strands are found on rocks and weed in shallow water (Ref. 41678). Used as bait for pike (Ref. 6258). Females live up to 10 year while males up to 7 years (Ref. 59043).

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

Eggs turn adhesive on contact with water and stick to stones or plants. Females lay eggs in two or more portions, usually separated by about 30 days in summer. First portion of eggs is larger the second portion. Larvae without or with only a brief, pelagic larval stage, switching early to benthic life, secretive and solitary, not forming schools. Larval survival is poor below 10°C and above 20°C (Ref. 59043).

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 | 合作者

Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

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人類使用

漁業: 低經濟; 游釣魚種: 是的; 誘餌: usually
FAO(漁業: 產生; publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | 周邊海洋

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