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Gymnocephalus cernua  (Linnaeus, 1758)

Ruffe
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Native range
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Gymnocephalus cernua   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Gymnocephalus cernua (Ruffe)
Gymnocephalus cernua
Picture by Bednarzik, J.

Classification / Names आम नाम | उपशब्द | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

ऐकटीनोप्टीरेजी (रेज़-फिन्नढ मछलियाँ) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Percidae (Perches) > Percinae
Etymology: Gymnocephalus: Greek, gymnos = naked + Greek, kephale = head (Ref. 45335).

पर्यावरण / जलवायु / सीमा पारिस्थितिकी

; स्वच्छ जल, अलवण जल; खारा ड़िमरसल; pH range: 7.0 - 7.5; dH range: 8 - 12; पोटामोड़िरोमस (Ref. 51243); गहराई सीमा 10 - ? m (Ref. 9696).   Temperate; 10°C - 20°C (Ref. 13371), preferred ?; 74°N - 43°N, 6°W - 169°E

वितरण देश | ऐफ ऐ ओ क्षेत्र | Ecosystems | संयोग | Point map | भूमिका | Faunafri

Europe: Caspian, Black, Baltic and North Sea basins; Great Britain; north to about 69° N in Scandinavia. Asia: Aral Sea basin, Arctic Ocean basin eastward to Kolyma drainage. Several countries report adverse ecological impact after introduction.

Length at first maturity / आकार / वज़न / Age

Maturity: Lm 10.5  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 25.0 cm TL पुल्लिंग / अलिंग; (Ref. 556); common length : 12.0 cm TL पुल्लिंग / अलिंग; (Ref. 556); अधिकतम प्रकाशित वज़न: 400.00 g (Ref. 556); अधिकतम सूचित उम्र: 10 वर्षो (Ref. 59043)

Short description आकृति विज्ञान | मौरफोमैटरिक्स

पृष्ठीय रीढ़ (सम्पूर्ण): 11 - 19; पृष्ठीय सौफट रेज़ (सम्पूर्ण): 11-16; गुदा कांटा 2; ऐनल सौफट रेज़: 5 - 6; जानवरों की रीड़ का जोड़: 35 - 36. Distinguished uniquely from its congeners by its body depth 24-27% SL. Differs further from other members of the genus by the combination of having a flank yellowish with numerous, small, irregular, dark blotches and having 11-16 dorsal spines (Ref. 59043). Caudal fin with 16 to 17 rays (Ref. 40476). Dorsal fins are fused. Color brownish with dark spots (Ref. 35388).

जीवविज्ञान     शब्द संग्रह (उदाहरणार्थ epibenthic)

Inhabits eutrophic lakes, lowland and piedmont rivers. Most abundant in estuaries of large rivers, brackish lakes with salinities up to 10-12 ppt and reservoirs. In general, its abundance increases with increased eutrophication (Ref. 59043). Reported to prefer still or slow-flowing water with soft bottom and without vegetation (Ref. 59043) and deep water with deposits of sand and gravel (Ref. 9696). Can tolerate some degradation of the environment (Ref. 30578). Can co-exist in deep lakes with Perca fluviatilis. Both species partly occur at different depths with Gymnocephalus cernua being more abundant in deeper layers (Ref. 59043). The membranous external walls of the head canals of this species provide high directional sensitivity; can feed at night in the dark using the lateral line system; feeds on zooplankton, chironomids, oligochaetes and amphipods (Ref. 10999). Pelagic in coastal lakes and tidal estuaries, preying on zooplankton and fish. Spawns on a variety of substrates at depths of about 3 m or less (Ref. 59043). White to yellow eggs in sticky strands are found on rocks and weed in shallow water (Ref. 41678). Used as bait for pike (Ref. 6258). Females live up to 10 year while males up to 7 years (Ref. 59043).

Life cycle and mating behavior परिपक्व अवधि | पुनरुत्पत्ति | मछलीऔ का अंडे देना | अंडे | Fecundity | लार्वा

Eggs turn adhesive on contact with water and stick to stones or plants. Females lay eggs in two or more portions, usually separated by about 30 days in summer. First portion of eggs is larger the second portion. Larvae without or with only a brief, pelagic larval stage, switching early to benthic life, secretive and solitary, not forming schools. Larval survival is poor below 10°C and above 20°C (Ref. 59043).

Main reference Upload your references | संदर्भ | संयोजक | सहयोगीयो

Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Potential pest




Human uses

मात्स्यिकी: लघु वाणिज्य; आखेट मत्स्य: हां; ठहराव / प्रलोभन: usually
FAO(मात्स्यिकी: production; publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

अधिक जानकारी

संदर्भ
जलीयकृषि
जलीयकृषि रूपरेखा
खींच
आनुवंशिकी
ऐल्लि आवृतियाँ
हैरेटिबिलटी
बीमारी
प्रक्रमण
Mass conversion
सहयोगीयो
तस्वीरे
Stamps, Coins
ध्वनि
सिगुयटिरा
रफ्तार
तैरने के प्रकार
गिल क्षेत्र
Otoliths
दिमाग
दृष्टि

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