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Gymnocephalus cernua  (Linnaeus, 1758)

Ruffe
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Gymnocephalus cernua   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Gymnocephalus cernua (Ruffe)
Gymnocephalus cernua
Picture by Bednarzik, J.

Classification / Names Nomi Comuni | Sinonimi | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterigi (pesci con pinne raggiate) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Percidae (Perches) > Percinae
Etymology: Gymnocephalus: Greek, gymnos = naked + Greek, kephale = head (Ref. 45335).

Ambiente / Clima / Range Ecologia

; acqua dolce; salmastro demersale; pH range: 7.0 - 7.5; dH range: 8 - 12; potamodromo (Ref. 51243); distribuzione batimetrica 10 - ? m (Ref. 9696).   Temperate; 10°C - 20°C (Ref. 13371), preferred ?; 74°N - 43°N, 6°W - 169°E

Distribuzione Stati | Aree FAO | Ecosystems | Presenze | Point map | Introduzioni | Faunafri

Europe: Caspian, Black, Baltic and North Sea basins; Great Britain; north to about 69° N in Scandinavia. Asia: Aral Sea basin, Arctic Ocean basin eastward to Kolyma drainage. Several countries report adverse ecological impact after introduction.

Length at first maturity / Size / Peso / Age

Maturity: Lm 10.5  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 25.0 cm TL maschio/sesso non determinato; (Ref. 556); common length : 12.0 cm TL maschio/sesso non determinato; (Ref. 556); Peso massimo pubblicato: 400.00 g (Ref. 556); Età massima riportata: 10 anni (Ref. 59043)

Short description Morfologia | Morfometria

Spine dorsali (totale): 11 - 19; Raggi dorsali molli (totale): 11-16; Spine anali 2; Raggi anali molli: 5 - 6; Vertebre: 35 - 36. Distinguished uniquely from its congeners by its body depth 24-27% SL. Differs further from other members of the genus by the combination of having a flank yellowish with numerous, small, irregular, dark blotches and having 11-16 dorsal spines (Ref. 59043). Caudal fin with 16 to 17 rays (Ref. 40476). Dorsal fins are fused. Color brownish with dark spots (Ref. 35388).

Biologia     Glossario (es. epibenthic)

Inhabits eutrophic lakes, lowland and piedmont rivers. Most abundant in estuaries of large rivers, brackish lakes with salinities up to 10-12 ppt and reservoirs. In general, its abundance increases with increased eutrophication (Ref. 59043). Reported to prefer still or slow-flowing water with soft bottom and without vegetation (Ref. 59043) and deep water with deposits of sand and gravel (Ref. 9696). Can tolerate some degradation of the environment (Ref. 30578). Can co-exist in deep lakes with Perca fluviatilis. Both species partly occur at different depths with Gymnocephalus cernua being more abundant in deeper layers (Ref. 59043). The membranous external walls of the head canals of this species provide high directional sensitivity; can feed at night in the dark using the lateral line system; feeds on zooplankton, chironomids, oligochaetes and amphipods (Ref. 10999). Pelagic in coastal lakes and tidal estuaries, preying on zooplankton and fish. Spawns on a variety of substrates at depths of about 3 m or less (Ref. 59043). White to yellow eggs in sticky strands are found on rocks and weed in shallow water (Ref. 41678). Used as bait for pike (Ref. 6258). Females live up to 10 year while males up to 7 years (Ref. 59043).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturità | Riproduzione | Deposizione | Uova | Fecundity | Larve

Eggs turn adhesive on contact with water and stick to stones or plants. Females lay eggs in two or more portions, usually separated by about 30 days in summer. First portion of eggs is larger the second portion. Larvae without or with only a brief, pelagic larval stage, switching early to benthic life, secretive and solitary, not forming schools. Larval survival is poor below 10°C and above 20°C (Ref. 59043).

Main reference Upload your references | Bibliografia | Coordinatore | Collaboratori

Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Potential pest




Human uses

Pesca: scarso interesse commerciale; Pesce da pesca sportiva: si; esca: usually
FAO(pesca: production; publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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