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Squalius cephalus  (Linnaeus, 1758)

Chub
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Native range
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Squalius cephalus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Squalius cephalus
Picture by Porcellotti et al.

分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 輻鰭魚綱 (條鰭魚) > Cypriniformes (Carps) > Cyprinidae (Minnows or carps) > Leuciscinae

Issue
Leuciscus orientalis Nordmann, 1840 is considered valid in Eschmeyer (CofF ver. May 2011: Ref. 86870). This is allocated to Squalius in Ref. 84537, a valid name, but secondary homonym Squalius orientalis Heckel, 1847 needs a replacement name.

環境 / 氣候 / 範圍 生態學

; 淡水; 半鹹淡水 底中水層性; pH range: 6.0 - 7.8; dH range: 8 - 25; 河川洄游 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 0 - ? m.    4°C - 20°C (Ref. 2059), preferred ?; 64°N - 35°N, 10°W - 60°E

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Eurasia: North, Baltic, northern Black, White, Barents and Caspian Sea basins, Atlatinc basins southward to Adour drainages (France), Great Britain north to 56°C, Scandinavia: southern Finland, Sweden north to abut Stockholm. Mediterranean basin from Var to Hérault (possibly Aude) (France) drainages. Introduced elsewhere, Naturally absent from Italy and Adriatic basin.

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm ?, range 7 - 30 cm
Max length : 60.0 cm SL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 59043); common length : 30.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 556); 最大體重: 8.0 kg (Ref. 2196); 最大年齡: 22 年 (Ref. 41616)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 3; 背的軟條 (總數): 7-9; 臀棘 3; 臀鰭軟條: 7 - 10; 脊椎骨: 42 - 48. Differs from its congeners in France, North, Baltic, Arctic, Black and Caspian Sea basins by the possession of the following characters: dorsal profile with a well-marked discontinuity between head and trunk; a row of black pigments along free margin of each flank scale, forming a regular reticulate pattern, with no or very few pigments on central part of scales; anal and pelvic fins orange to red; dorsal fin with 8½ branched rays; anal fin with 8½ branched rays (rarely 9½); scales on lateral line 40-45 + 2-3; mouth terminal, with well marked chin; lower jaw tip not included in the upper lip; interorbital distance 37-42% HL; postorbital distance 47-51% HL; eye diameter 17-22% HL, 1.5-2.3 times in snout length; body depth 22-27% SL; lower jaw long, length greater than depth of operculum; iris whitish; pharyngeal teeth 2,5-5,2; in stretched anal fin of individuals larger than about 15 cm SL, distance between tips of first and last branched rays usually greater than caudal peduncle depth (Ref. 59043). Caudal fin with 19 rays (Ref. 2196).

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Most abundant in small rivers and large streams of barbel zone with riffles and pools. Found along shores of slow-flowing lowland rivers, even in very small mountain streams, and in large lake, undertaking spawning migration to inflowing streams. Adults are solitary while juveniles occur in groups. Feeding larvae and juveniles live in very shallow shoreline habitats. Feed on a wide variety of aquatic and terrestrial animals and plant material. Large individuals prey predominantly on fishes. Breed in fast-flowing water above gravel bottom, rarely among submerged vegetation. Often form fertile hybrids with Alburnus alburnus (Ref. 59043). Popular with amateur sport fishermen. Can be caught with various baits and lures. The flesh is of poor quality (Ref. 38587).

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

Spawning occurs in fast-flowing water above gravel bottom, rarely among submerged vegetation. Female spawn more than once during a season, individual females spawn with several males. Males assemble at spawning site and follow ripe females, often with much splashing, to shallow riffles. Females lays sticky eggs into the gravel (Ref. 59043). Pale yellow eggs are found attached to gravel, weed and stones in flowing water (Ref. 41678).

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 | 合作者

Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

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人類使用

漁業: 低經濟; 游釣魚種: 是的
FAO(養殖: 產生; 漁業: 產生; publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | 周邊海洋

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