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Electrophorus electricus  (Linnaeus, 1766)

Electric eel
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Native range | All suitable habitat
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Electrophorus electricus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Electrophorus electricus (Electric eel)
Electrophorus electricus
Picture by Fürderer, H.

分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 輻鰭魚綱 (條鰭魚) > Gymnotiformes (Knifefishes) > Gymnotidae (Naked-back knifefishes)
Etymology: Electrophorus: Greek, elektron = amber + Greek,pherein = to carry (Ref. 45335).

環境 / 氣候 / 範圍 生態學

; 淡水 底中水層性.    23°C - 28°C (Ref. 1672), preferred ?

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

South America: Amazon and Orinoco River basins, and related areas in northern South America.

大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 250 cm SL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 27188); 最大體重: 20.0 kg (Ref. 27188)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 0; 背的軟條 (總數): 0. Body elongated and cylindrical, almost without scales; head flattened; mouth large with one row of conical teeth on each jaw; presence of three abdominal pairs of electric organs; body color dark with anterior ventral part yellowish (Ref. 12225).

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Prefer muddy bottoms and calm waters; frequently found in coastal plains, swamps and creeks but is also found inland where a favorable biotope exist. Juveniles feed on invertebrates, adults feed on fish and small mammals (Ref. 12225), first-born larvae prey on other eggs and embryos coming from late spawning batches (Ref. 40645). The electric organ of this species consists of flattened electrocytes, numbering to about hundreds of thousands, connected in series (Ref. 10840; 10011). Generates two type of electric organ discharges (EODs) from different electric organs which are of myogenic derivation: 1) low-voltage EODs (about 10 V) emitted by the Sach's organ at rates of up to 25 Hz, and 2) high-voltage EODs (about 50-fold) emitted by the main and Hunter's organs at peak rates of up to several hundred Hz. Low-voltage EOD has been associated with electro location whereas high-voltage EOD has been noted during predatory attacks (Ref. 10011). An EOD of 500 V was recorded from a 1 m specimen (Ref. 10530), making it a potentially dangerous species. Incorporation of this species in fish-based house security systems has been suggested (see Ref. 9506). Also possesses high-frequency sensitive tuberous receptors patchily distributed over the body that seems useful for hunting other gymnotiforms (Ref. 10583). A nocturnal species; captive specimens showed higher low-voltage EOD activity during the night compared to daytime (Ref. 10011). This cycle seems to be free-running (internally controlled) (Ref. 10829). Probably a fractional spawner; fecundity count was17,000 eggs (Ref. 10630). An obligatory air breather (Ref. 10011) and can withstand poorly oxygenated water (Ref. 26457). Used in experimental studies.

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

Males construct foam nests and guard the growing larvae until mid-January when the first seasonal rains flood the breeding area, causing the about 10 cm long young eels to disperse (Ref. 40645). Males outnumber females (3:1) and are considerably larger than females (Ref. 40645). There are three successive batches of eggs deposited in a spawning period. Not all eels with fully developed gonads (in Goiapi drainnage) participated in the annual spawning activity suggesting that mating success depends in part on finding suitable breeding sites (Ref. 40645).

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 : Campos-da-Paz, Ricardo | 合作者

Ortega, H. and R.P. Vari, 1986. Annotated checklist of the freshwater fishes of Peru. Smithson. Contrib. Zool. (437):1-25. (Ref. 6329)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

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