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Salmo marmoratus  Cuvier, 1829

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Salmo marmoratus
Picture by Dresler, B.

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Actinopterygii 輻鰭魚綱 (條鰭魚) > Salmoniformes (Salmons) > Salmonidae (Salmonids) > Salmoninae
Etymology: Salmo: Latin, salmo, Plinius = salmon (Ref. 45335).   More on author: Cuvier.

環境 / 氣候 / 範圍 生態學

; 淡水 居於水底的; 溯河洄游 (Ref. 51243).    2°C - 15°C (Ref. 11241), preferred ?; 47°N - 43°N, 7°E - 20°E

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Europe: Adriatic basin from Po (only northern tributaries) to Soca and Rizana drainages (Italy, Slovenia). Introduced in Tevere drainage in Italy. Molecular data suggest that populations identified as Salmo marmoratus from Neretva drainage (Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia) and most likely those from Lake Skadar basin and Drin to Shkumbin drainages (Montenegro, Albania, Kosovoa, Macedonia) represent another species, as yet unidentified. Records from Croatia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Albania may be other subspecies of Adriatic trout and not of this marble trout (Lucijan Rejec, lrejec@ribiska-druzina-tolmin.si, pers.comm. 07/09).

大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 120 cm SL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 59043); 最大體重: 50.0 kg (Ref. 59043); 最大年齡: 10 年 (Ref. 59043)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

Distinguished from all congeners in Adriatic basin by having the following unique characters: body silvery to olive-green with irregular brown lines forming a marbled pattern; and no parr marks in individuals larger than 6 cm SL. Differs further by the combination of the following characters: red spots confined to lateral line, absent in some individuals and populations; opercle with brownish blotches or lines; head length 22-25% SL; eye diameter 1.7-2.2 times in interorbital distance, 3.1-4.3 times in postorbital length (at 25-35 cm SL) (Ref. 59043).

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Inhabits cold streams and rivers in montane and piedmont landscapes with temperature usually not rising above 15° C during summer (Ref. 59043). Occurs over sandy and gravelly bottoms of running or standing clean and cold waters in the upper courses of Alpine rivers and glacial lakes (Ref. 12291). Feeds on a wide variety of aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates, shifting to fish diet when adult. Spawns in gravel of rivers and streams with swift water (0.4-0.5 m/s) at moderate depth (0.6-0.8 m). Lives up to at least 10 years. Threatened due to hybridization with introduced Salmo trutta and Salmo cenerinus, pollution, overfishing and river regulation. Only a few pure populations remain and stocking of pure strains has improved the situation. Conservation status is under least concern category, but might return to a threatened category if conservation measures end (Ref. 59043).

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

Does not undertake spawning migrations or undertake migrations only at very short distances. Individuals foraging in lakes move to lake tributaries to spawn. Males begin occupying spawning grounds about one week before females. Eggs hatch in about 45 days. Alevins commence feeding 59-63 days after spawning at 10° C (Ref. 59043).

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 | 合作者

Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

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人類使用

漁業: 商業性; 養殖: 商業性; 游釣魚種: 是的
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