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Macropodus opercularis  (Linnaeus, 1758)

Paradisefish
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Macropodus opercularis
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分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 輻鰭魚綱 (條鰭魚) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Osphronemidae (Gouramies) > Macropodusinae
Etymology: Macropodus: Greek, makros = great + Greek, pous, podos = foot (Ref. 45335).

環境 / 氣候 / 範圍 生態學

; 淡水 大洋性; pH range: 6.0 - 8.0; dH range: 5 - 19.    16°C - 26°C (Ref. 1672), preferred ?; 30°N - 20°N, 102°E - 122°E

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Asia: China, from Yangtze basin to the south, on Hainan Island, in Taiwan, north Viet Nam; introduced to the tropical and subtropical world (Ref. 42924). Very popular with aquarists and has been widely transported around the world.

大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 6.7 cm SL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 43281); common length : 5.5 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 12193)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 11 - 17; 背的軟條 (總數): 5-10; 臀棘 7-22; 臀鰭軟條: 9 - 15; 脊椎骨: 27 - 29. Caudal fin forked, both lobes elongate in males (Ref. 559), with filamentous extension in each lobe (Ref. 43281); lower margin of preorbital sharply serrated (Ref. 559); conspicuous dark brown opercular spot with whitish posterior margin (margin red in life); body with 7-11 bold, dark bars on pale yellowish background in preserved specimens (blue bars on reddish background in life); dark stripe crossing eye connecting opercular spot with eye; top of head and predorsal body with dark spots; posterior tip or margin of scales on body not darker than scales (Ref. 42924).

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Adults inhabit any kind of lowland habitats from heterogeneous structured margins or backwaters of large rivers to small streams and irrigation channels on farmland (Ref. 42924). Can colonize stagnant water bodies with very low oxygen content (air breather). Found in streams, paddy fields and ditches (Ref. 5258). Feed on small aquatic animals including small fish. First ornamental fish to be brought to Europe (France 1869, Germany 1876) after the goldfish (Ref. 13371). Males will fight each other (Ref. 1672). Aquarium keeping: minimum aquarium size 80 cm (Ref. 51539).

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

The species is a bubble-nest builder; the male swims to the surface, draws a little air into his mouth and envelops it in a film of saliva thereby forming bubbles; upon building the nest, the male drives the female towards it; female spawns then male follows; male picks up the fertilized eggs in his mouth and pushes one by one into each bubble of the nest; male guards eggs until hatching (Ref. 5258). Produces up to 500 eggs (Ref. 1672).

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 | 合作者

Freyhof, J. and F. Herder, 2002. Review of the paradise fishes of the genus Macropodus in Vietnam, with description of two species from Vietnam and southern China (Perciformes: Osphronemidae). Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwat. 13(2):147-167. (Ref. 42924)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

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