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Sphyrna lewini  (Griffith & Smith, 1834)

Scalloped hammerhead
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Sphyrna lewini   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Sphyrna lewini (Scalloped hammerhead)
Sphyrna lewini
Picture by Randall, J.E.

Classification / Names Κοινά ονόματα | Συνώνυμα | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Ελασμοβράγχιοι (καρχαρίες και σαλάχια) (sharks and rays) > Carcharhiniformes (Ground sharks) > Sphyrnidae (Hammerhead, bonnethead, or scoophead sharks)
Etymology: Sphyrna: Greek, sphyra = hammer (Ref. 45335).

Περιβάλλον / Κλίμα / Εύρος Οικολογία

; Θαλασσινό(ά); Υφάλμυρο; ωκεανόδρομο(ς) (Ref. 51243); εύρος βάθους 0 - 1000 m (Ref. 89972), usually 0 - 25 m (Ref. 26999).   Tropical, preferred 26°C (Ref. 107945); 46°N - 31°S, 180°W - 180°E

Κατανομή Χώρες | Περιοχές FAO | Οικοσυστήματα | Παρουσίες | Point map | Εισαγωγές | Faunafri

Circumglobal in coastal warm temperate and tropical seas (Ref. 13562). Western Atlantic: New Jersey, USA to Uruguay (Ref. 58839), including the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean. Eastern Atlantic: western Mediterranean (Ref. 6678) to Namibia (Ref. 6812). Indo-Pacific: Persian Gulf (Ref. 68964), Red Sea, East Africa and throughout the Indian Ocean; Japan to New Caledonia, Hawaii and Tahiti. Eastern Pacific: southern California, USA to Ecuador, probably Peru.

Length at first maturity / Μέγεθος / Βάρος / Age

Maturity: Lm 225.0, range 200 - 273 cm
Max length : 430 cm TL αρσενικό/απροσδιόριστο; (Ref. 26938); common length : 360 cm TL αρσενικό/απροσδιόριστο; (Ref. 13562); μεγ. δημοσιευμένο βάρος: 152.4 kg (Ref. 40637); μεγ. αναφερόμενη ηλικία: 35 έτη (Ref. 31395)

Short description Μορφολογία | Μορφομετρία

Ραχιαίες άκανθες (συνολικά): 0; Μαλακές ραχιαίες ακτίνες (συνολικά): 0; Εδρικές άκανθες 0; Μαλακές εδρικές ακτίνες: 0. A large hammerhead with a notch at the center of head; 1st dorsal fin moderately high, 2nd dorsal and pelvic fins low (Ref. 5578). Front margin of head broadly arched with prominent median notch. Side wings of head narrow, rear margins swept backward (Ref. 26938). Uniform grey, grayish brown, or olivaceous above, shading to white below; pectoral fins tipped with grey or black ventrally (Ref. 13562).

Βιολογία     Γλωσσάρι (π.χ. epibenthic)

A coastal-pelagic, semi-oceanic shark occurring over continental and insular shelves and adjacent deep water, often approaching close inshore and entering enclosed bays and estuaries (Ref. 244, 11230, 58302). Found in inshore and offshore waters to about 275 m depth (Ref. 26938, 11230, 58302); has been filmed at a baited camera in 512 m depth (Lis Maclaren, pers. comm. 2005). Huge schools of small migrating individuals move pole ward in the summer in certain areas (Ref. 244). Permanent resident populations also exist (Ref. 244). Juveniles occur in coastal areas (Ref. 58784). Adults solitary, in pairs, or schools; young in large schools (Ref. 13562). Feed mainly on teleost fishes and cephalopods (Ref. 6871), also lobsters, shrimps, crabs (Ref. 30573), including other sharks and rays (Ref. 37816). Viviparous (Ref. 50449). Mature females produce 15-31, of 43-55 cm young in a litter (Ref. 26938, 1602). Considered potentially dangerous to people but often not aggressive when approached by divers (Ref. 13562). Readily available to inshore artisanal and small commercial fisheries as well as to offshore operations (Ref. 13562). Sold fresh, dried-salted, smoked and frozen; also sought for its fins and hides (Ref. 9987). Oil used for vitamins and carcasses for fishmeal (Ref. 13562).

Life cycle and mating behavior Γεννητική Ωρίμανση | Αναπαραγωγή | Γεννοβολία | Αβγά | Γονιμότητα | Προνύμφες

Viviparous, placental (Ref. 50449), with 13-23 in a litter (Ref. 6871); 12-41 pups after a gestation period of 9-10 months (Ref.58048). Size at birth 45-50 cm TL (Ref. 13562); 39-57 cm TL (Ref.58048).

Main reference Upload your references | Αναφορές | Συντονιστής : Compagno, Leonard J.V. | Συνεργάτες

Compagno, L.J.V., 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2 - Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/2):251-655. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 244)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

  Endangered (EN) (A2bd+4bd)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Threat to humans

Other (Ref. 13562)




Human uses

αλιεία: Εμπορικό(ά); αλιεία αναψυχής: ναί

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