|Geography and Climate
Peru is located in Western South America, bordering the South Pacific Ocean, between Chile and Ecuador. Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Alaska. Total land boundary is 6,940 km
border countries are Bolivia 900 km, Brazil 1,560 km, Chile 160 km, Colombia 2,900 km, Ecuador 1,420 km.
Climate in Peru varies from tropical in east to dry desert in west. Terrain consists of western coastal plain (costa), high and rugged Andes in center (sierra), eastern lowland jungle of Amazon Basin (selva). Elevation extreme has the lowest point in Pacific Ocean 0 m and highest point in Nevado Huascaran 6,768 m. Natural resources are copper, silver, gold, petroleum, timber, fish, iron ore, coal, phosphate, potash. Land use: arable land: 3%, permanent crops: 0%,
permanent pastures: 21%, forests and woodland: 66%, other: 10% (1993 est.). Irrigated land: 12,800 sq km (1993 est.). Natural hazards are earthquakes, tsunamis, flooding, landslides, mild volcanic activity.
Environment—current issues: deforestation; overgrazing of the slopes of the costa and sierra leading to soil erosion; desertification; air pollution in Lima; pollution of rivers and coastal waters from municipal and mining wastes.
Geography—note: shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake, with Bolivia.
Ref. Anonymous, 1999