Morphology Data of Gymnochanda verae
Identification keys
Main Ref. Tan, H.H. and K.K.P. Lim, 2011
Appearance refers to
Bones in OsteoBase

Sex attributes

Specialized organs
Different appearance
Different colors

Descriptive characteristics of juvenile and adult

Striking features
Body shape lateral
Cross section
Dorsal head profile
Type of eyes
Type of mouth/snout
Position of mouth

Gymnochanda verae can be differentiated from its congeners by the following characters: mature males with expanded anal and second dorsal fins, the soft rays of both fins extending to midway of the caudal fin, forming a triangular profile; the highly elongated rays of the anal and second dorsal fins joined throughout their length by the interradial membrane; up to half of the distal part of both the anal and the second dorsal fins carmine red in life (hyaline when preserved); distal half of both upper and lower caudal-fin lobes carmine red in life (hyaline when preserved); female without any elongated fin rays or colour. Gymnochanda verae also differs from its congeners apparently in having more serrae on its head: supraorbital ridge with 7 anterior serrae (vs. 0–5 anterior spines in the other species), preorbital ridge with 3 serrae (vs. 4 in G. flamea and 2 in G. limi); preopercular ridge with 7 serrae (vs. 1–4 in the other species); interopercle with 2 serrae (vs. none in G. limi and G. flamea); hind margin of preopercle with up to 9 serrae (vs. 1–5 in the other species). Information on head serrations on G. filamentosa are from Fraser-Brunner (1954: 210) and Boeseman (1957: 76), and on G. limi from Kottelat (1995: 56) (Ref. 88067).

Ease of Identification

Meristic characteristics of Gymnochanda verae

Lateral Lines Interrupted: No
Scales on lateral line
Pored lateral line scales
Scales in lateral series
Scale rows above lateral line
Scale rows below lateral line
Scales around caudal peduncle
Gill clefts (sharks/rays only)
Gill rakers
on lower limb
on upper limb


Dorsal fin(s)

Fins number
Finlets No. Dorsal   
Spines total
Soft-rays total
Adipose fin

Caudal fin


Anal fin(s)

Fins number
Spines total
Soft-rays total

Paired fins

Pectoral Attributes  
Pelvics Attributes  
Main Ref. (e.g. 9948)
Glossary ( e.g. cephalopods )
Entered by Busson, Frédéric
Modified by Busson, Frédéric
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