Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Pomacanthidae
Etymology: Holacanthus: Greek, holos = full + Greek, akantha = thorn (Ref. 45335). More on author: Valenciennes.
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range 4 - 30 m (Ref. 5227). Tropical; 28°N -
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 35.6 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5592); common length : 15.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 55763)
Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California to Peru, including the Galapagos Islands.
Diurnal grazer on sessile invertebrates and algae but specializes to a larger extent on sponges. Also feeds on plankton. Reproduction occurs in late summer. Females are more territorial and form pair bonds with the males. Oviparous (Ref. 240), monogamous (Ref. 52884). Sometimes forms mixed aggregations with Pomacanthus zonipectus (Ref. 9333). Cleaning behavior has been observed in juveniles.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Spawn daily throughout the lunar cycle (Ref. 240). Protogyny has been proposed for this species awaiting confirmation (Ref. 103751).
Thomson, D.A., 1987. Reef fishes of the Sea of Cortez. The rocky-shore fishes of the Gulf of California. The University of Arizona Press, Tucson. 302 p. (Ref. 5592)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5078 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.03162 (0.01873 - 0.05338), b=2.93 (2.78 - 3.08), based on LWR estimates for species & (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 2.6 ±0.33 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (35 of 100) .