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Epinephelus marginatus  (Lowe, 1834)

Dusky grouper
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Epinephelus marginatus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Epinephelus marginatus (Dusky grouper)
Epinephelus marginatus
Picture by Randall, J.E.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; reef-associated; depth range 8 - 300 m (Ref. 27000), usually ? - 50 m (Ref. 5222).   Subtropical; 54°N - 43°S, 65°W - 58°E (Ref. 5222)

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm 47.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 150 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 12382); max. published weight: 60.0 kg (Ref. 5222); max. reported age: 50 years (Ref. 12382)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 11; Dorsal soft rays (total): 14-16; Anal spines: 3; Anal soft rays: 8. Distinguished by the following characteristics: head and body dark reddish brown or greyish dorsally, usually yellowish gold ventrally; irregular white, pale greenish yellow or silvery grey blotches usually visible on the body and head and mostly arranged in vertical series; more or less distinct black maxillary streak; dark brown median fins; distal edge of anal and caudal fins, often also pectoral fins, narrowly white; pelvic fins blackish distally; pectoral fins dark reddish brown or grey; margin of spinous dorsal fin and basal part of the paired fins often golden yellow; head length 2.3-2.5 in SL; convex interorbital area; rounded preopercle, finely serrate, serrae at angle slightly enlarged; smooth subopercle and interopercle; eye diameter greater than or subequal to interorbital width in fish 10-30 cm SL, less than interorbital in fish over 40 cm SL; posterior and anterior nostrils subequal or posterior nostril slightly larger; maxilla naked, reaching to or slightly past vertical at rear edge of eye; 2-4 rows of subequal teeth on midlateral part of lower jaw (Ref. 89707).

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions | Faunafri

East and Southwest Atlantic and Western Indian Ocean: East Atlantic: throughout the Mediterranean Sea, and from the southern Bay of Biscaye to southern tip of Africa. Stray specimens reported from the British Isles, and eastern English Channel (Normandy, France; Ref. 92236). Southwest Atlantic: southeastern Brazil, Uruguay, and Argentina. Western Indian Ocean: from tip of Africa to southern Mozambique and southern Madagascar. Reported from Oman and La Reunion I.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Adults prefer rocky bottoms (Ref. 5222), are solitary and territorial (Ref. 12382). Juveniles are found closer to shore (Ref. 48605) in rocky tidal pools (Ref. 48609). Mainly feed on crabs and octopi; larger individuals feed on a greater proportion of fishes, the majority of which are reef-associated species (Ref. 6842). A protogynous hermaphrodite (Ref. 55367). Mature individuals form spawning aggregations (Ref. 55367). Utilized as a food fish (Ref. 171). Readily caught by anglers (Ref. 5222). Not adapted well in an aquarium (Ref. 12382).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Heemstra, Phillip C. | Collaborators

Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p.

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: highly commercial; gamefish: yes
FAO(fisheries: production; publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Estimates of some properties based on empirical models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01150 (0.00774 - 0.01708), b=3.06 (2.94 - 3.18), based on LWR estimates for species & Genus-BS (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.7   ±0.6 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.03-0.09; tmax=50; tm=5).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  High to very high vulnerability (72 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Very high.