Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Serranidae
(Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 10 - 150 m (Ref. 5222). Tropical; 35°N - 32°S, 29°E - 150°E (Ref. 5222)
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 99 - ? cm
Max length : 200 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2872); max. published weight: 110.0 kg (Ref. 9710)
soft rays: 8. Interorbital space slightly convex; preopercle rounded or sub angular, the serrae slightly enlarged; upper edge of the operculum almost straight; nostrils sub equal; maxilla reaches to or past vertical at rear edge of eye. Overall color is pale brownish gray with several dark brown to black widely-spaced blotches; head with smaller dark brown spots and streaks (many radiating from the eye); dark spots on fins small distally. Large adults may be nearly black.
Indo-West Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa to southern Japan and Queensland, Australia. Also from the Paracel Islands in the South China Sea. There are no records from Madagascar, Mauritius, Maldives, Laccadives, and Sri Lanka, Indonesia, and the Philippines.
Mainly found in deep reef channels and seamounts, in current prone areas (Ref. 48635). Juveniles may be found in tide pools (Ref. 5222). Feeds on reef fishes, skates, crabs, and spiny lobsters (Ref. 5222). Considered to be exceedingly territorial and very aggressive towards intruders. Vulnerable to spear fishers (Ref. 5222). Hand fed by divers in certain areas, but potentially dangerous to the inexperienced. In the Hong Kong live fish markets (Ref. 27253). Solitary (Ref 90102).
Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01510 (-0.12090 - 0.15110), b=3.06 (2.98 - 3.14), based on LWR estimates for species & Genus-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.2 ±0.68 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (83 of 100) .